OPINION: Commercial Crew – It was never about saving money
The last time NASA had to pay for astronauts to hitch a ride to the International Space Station (ISS) with the Russians on their venerable Soyuz spacecraft, they paid – on average – nearly $82 million per seat, for a total of six seats. That’s $490 million to transport six astronauts to and from the ISS.
The Bear knows how to play Monopoly
Think about that for a moment: NASA has paid Russia almost half a billion dollars to ferry six people to the ISS. It appears that the former communists have learned capitalism in a fairly short time – Soyuz seats have increased 384 percent in 10 years. Having no competition allows Russia to increase prices with relative impunity.
To be fair, that amount does cover more than just taxi service to the orbiting outpost – launch services and flight training are also included in that “low, low” price. However, that’s still a lot of money to be sending to a government that may be actively operating against U.S. institutions.
Moreover, Russia’s military actions in Syria and Crimea has raised troubling questions.
As if this wasn’t enough, members of the Russian government have made comments suggesting that the nation is considering an end to its work on the space station. This makes ending the dependence on Russian launch services not only appealing but also sensible.
Since 2010, NASA has been working with private companies as part of the agency’s Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program, with the goal of accelerating development of commercial space capabilities which it hopes will allow NASA to regain the ability to launch NASA astronauts to low-Earth orbit from U.S. soil.
Just a tad late
With the nearly $8 billion awarded and disbursed to the two primary CCDev partners, SpaceX ($3.144 billion) and Boeing ($4.82 billion), NASA had hoped to resume crewed flights from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) sometime in 2015.
That’s right: 2015.
A quick glance at a calendar is all one needs to see that neither SpaceX nor Boeing have met that initial goal. Surely, though, it’s only a small delay and they’ll launch before the end of 2016, right? How about mid-2017?
Both Boeing and SpaceX have encountered significant delays in preparing their individual systems for launching NASA’s astronauts, and they are both nearing the end of 2018, or even early 2019, for their first crewed flights to the ISS. In order to ensure the agency can still get their astronauts to the ISS with these continued Commercial Crew delays, NASA had to give Russia substantially more money per seat in 2017 and 2018: $76.3 million and $81.1 million, respectively.
Assuming that one or both American companies are able to begin launching crew to the ISS by the end of 2018, that means the United States would have paid Russia nearly $3.37 billion over 13 years to train and transport 64 astronauts to the ISS, averaging almost $53 million per seat over that period.
Let’s go for the cheap seats
Certainly, though, even if the Commercial Crew providers are running a little behind, they’ll be significantly cheaper… right? It depends on how one calculates the cost. According to Lisa Colloredo, Associate Manager of NASA’s Commercial Crew program, the agency expects to pay approximately $58 million per seat, which is close to the historical average for the Soyuz seats.
If one figures three crewed flights per year (two for crew rotation and one for short duration science flights), each consisting of three NASA astronauts, that comes to 20 flights (two flights in 2018, three each in 2019–2024). Those 60 seats total $3.48 billion.
However, that per-seat price is separate from the billions already awarded to both SpaceX and Boeing as part of the CCDev program. That would mean NASA will have spent $8 billion for CCDev, plus $3.48 billion in seat costs, to send astronauts to the ISS.
But to what end? Even if crewed flights begin in early 2018 (which is unlikely), the ISS may very well stop being operated as a NASA-supported outpost as early as 2024 and may cease operating altogether by 2028.
One might consider that the products from these commercial companies would be cheaper than buying seats from the Russians and that these firms just need the boost from the government to get started. Certainly, SpaceX largely owes its existence to NASA’s largesse, and it continues to operate primarily on the government’s dime:
However, SpaceX receives the majority of its funding from NASA, and according to one internal NASA document, as much as 85 percent of the company’s revenues to date have come from the space agency through its multibillion dollar commercial crew and cargo contracts. Put simply, if not for NASA, SpaceX would probably be flying the Falcon 1 or 5 rocket today or might not exist at all. — Op-ed: We love you SpaceX, and hope you reach Mars. But we need you to focus by Eric Berger, Ars Technica
So, it would appear that the U.S. taxpayer will provide the commercial companies billions of dollars in taxpayer money to develop crew capability, then pay billions more to use this capability to fly astronauts to a location that might not be around much longer.
What if we kept paying Russia?
The per-seat cost to fly astronauts on Soyuz has increased, on average, 14.71 percent per year since 2009 (and only a smidge more than 11 percent if one includes 2006 through 2008). If one were to extrapolate that average increase for each year following our currently contracted seats, through the end of the current commitment to operate ISS – 2019 through 2024 – we would end with a tremendous $184.7 million per seat in 2024, totaling nearly $4.85 billion over that six-year period, assuming 6 seats per year.
The totality of the contracted Soyuz seats from 2006 through 2018, plus the extrapolated seat prices with the 14.71 percent annual increases from 2019 through 2024, comes to $8.22 billion. Admittedly, that’s not the sort of money one finds in their couch cushions; indeed, that’s quite a lot for NASA to pay for a seat on a Soyuz.
But Commercial Crew has to be cheaper than that, right?
Considering the currently-awarded amount to the two main Commercial Crew partners stands at $7.964 billion – and that’s before a single astronaut takes flight – plus $58 million per seat thereafter, it’s hard to make any argument that Commercial Crew was ever about saving money.
In fact, the difference between the seats already purchased from Russia – plus the extrapolated seat prices – and only the CCDev contracts awarded to Boeing and SpaceX is $256 million. Once five NASA astronauts have launched on Commercial Crew, that difference is erased.
Despite this, if the U.S. is going to invest in aerospace firms, they should be domestic ones and not be with organizations whose allegiance is to those who has been at odds with America for a majority of the time since the end of World War II.
When all is said and done, CCP isn’t about being cheaper than Russia, it’s about maintaining a capability that the U.S. shouldn’t have lost in the first place.
The Views expressed in this editorial are those of the author and do not, necessarily, reflect those of SpaceFlight Insider.
Curt Godwin has been a fan of space exploration for as long as he can remember, keeping his eyes to the skies from an early age. Initially majoring in Nuclear Engineering, Curt later decided that computers would be a more interesting - and safer - career field. He's worked in education technology for more than 20 years, and has been published in industry and peer journals, and is a respected authority on wireless network engineering. Throughout this period of his life, he maintained his love for all things space and has written about his experiences at a variety of NASA events, both on his personal blog and as a freelance media representative.