Spaceflight Insider

Aerojet Rocketdyne demonstrates electric propulsion capabilities for future deep space missions

An artist's rendering of a version of NASA's lunar Gateway. Aerojet Rocketdyne is developing a propulsion system that could be used on the U.S. space agency's proposed deep space outpost. Image Credit: Nathan Koga / SpaceFlight Insider

An artist’s rendering of a version of NASA’s lunar Gateway. Aerojet Rocketdyne is developing a propulsion system that could be used on the U.S. space agency’s proposed deep space outpost. Image Credit: Nathan Koga / SpaceFlight Insider

An early systems integration test was performed by Aerojet Rocketdyne for NASA’s Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS) program, which includes technology that could be used on NASA’s proposed lunar-orbiting outpost in the early 2020s, the company said.

Aerojet Rocketdyne is under contract with NASA to develop and qualify a 13-kilowatt Hall thruster string for the U.S. space agency. According to the company in an Aug. 28, 2018, news release, the recent test focused on the power elements of the AEPS Hall thruster string, in particular the discharge supply unit and the power processing unit, to prove the system’s ability to convert power at a high efficiency level and produce minimal waste heat.

A prototype 13-kilowatt Hall thruster being tested at NASA's Glenn Research Center in Cleveland.

A prototype 13-kilowatt Hall thruster being tested at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland in 2016. Photo Credit: NASA

Hall thrusters, a type of ion thruster, trap electrons in a magnetic field and use them to ionize the onboard propellant (typically xenon), accelerating them outward to produce thrust, according to NASA. Overall, these engines use 10 times less propellant than traditional chemical rockets.

“By staying on the cutting edge of propulsion technology, we have positioned ourselves for a major role not only in getting back to the Moon, but also in any future initiative to send people to Mars,” said Eileen Drake, Aerojet Rocketdyne CEO and president, in a company statement. “AEPS is the vanguard for the next generation of deep space exploration and we’re thrilled to be at the mast.”

Drake said the AEPS discharge supply unit performed “exceptionally,” and yielded “significant conversion efficiency improvements” for demanding deep space missions in the future.

“These results are a testament to the Aerojet Rocketdyne team’s focus and dedication to advancing the state of the art in this critical in-space technology area,” Drake said.

According to the company, the early integrated systems test combined a breadboard AEPS power processing unit and discharge supply unit with a NASA development thruster. The test took place in a thermal vacuum chamber at the U.S. space agency’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio.

The next step will be to finalize and verify the design before the critical design review, which would clear the system for production, Aerojet Rocketdyne said.

One immediate potential use of Aerojet Rocketdyne’s AEPS thruster would be on the Power and Propulsion Element of NASA’s proposed lunar Gateway, an outpost in a lunar orbit that would be human tended for 30 to 90 days at a time.

The most recent plans for the lunar Gateway call for an industry-designed Power and Propulsion Element to be launched in 2022 atop a commercial launch vehicle. It would provide the outpost power, in-space transportation using advanced solar electric propulsion and initial lunar communications.

Within a year, two more modules would be attached to the Gateway to provide an early operational capability, according to NASA. These would be the European System Providing Refueling Infrastructure and Telecommunications (ESPRIT), provided by the European Space Agency, and a U.S. Utilization Module.

ESPRIT would provide a refueling capability for the Power and Propulsion Element, a science airlock as well as additional lunar communications. The U.S. Utilization Module would provide initial habitation volume and logistics for up to 15 days, according to NASA. Both are expected to be launched atop the Space Launch System. It is unclear if they would fly together or separately.

The early operational capability would allow the outpost to be visited by human crews as early as 2024 via NASA’s Orion spacecraft. Eventually other elements would be added, including both U.S. and international partner habitats, an airlock and a robotic arm. The Gateway would also be regularly serviced by logistics spacecraft.

A graphic of NASA's proposed lunar Gateway as of August 2018. Image Credit: NASA

A graphic of NASA’s proposed lunar Gateway as of August 2018. Image Credit: NASA

 

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Derek Richardson has a degree in mass media, with an emphasis in contemporary journalism, from Washburn University in Topeka, Kansas. While at Washburn, he was the managing editor of the student run newspaper, the Washburn Review. He also has a blog about the International Space Station, called Orbital Velocity. He met with members of the SpaceFlight Insider team during the flight of a United Launch Alliance Atlas V 551 rocket with the MUOS-4 satellite. Richardson joined our team shortly thereafter. His passion for space ignited when he watched Space Shuttle Discovery launch into space Oct. 29, 1998. Today, this fervor has accelerated toward orbit and shows no signs of slowing down. After dabbling in math and engineering courses in college, he soon realized his true calling was communicating to others about space. Since joining SpaceFlight Insider in 2015, Richardson has worked to increase the quality of our content, eventually becoming our managing editor. @TheSpaceWriter

Reader Comments

To:Lockheed Martin
Isn’t it time for a stronger & more efficient drive mechanism ? Escape velocities & ISPs far above this can be achieved with both staged centrifugal & hydraulic ram pressure systems. In this particular instance ,I think the old saying really applies : KISS !

James Lunar Miner

“Overall, these engines use 10 times less propellant than traditional chemical rockets.” – Derek Richardson

Yep. Our robotic spacecraft with highly propellant efficient electric space propulsion systems are currently in orbit around both the Earth and Ceres.

Note:

“The pre-prototype HiPEP produced 670 mN of thrust at a power level of 39.3 kW using 7.0 mg/s of fuel giving a specific impulse of 9620 s.”

From: “High Power Electric Propulsion” Wikipedia
At: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Power_Electric_Propulsion

“Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS) is a solar electric propulsion system for spacecraft that is being designed, developed and tested by NASA and Aerojet Rocketdyne for large-scale science missions and cargo transportation.[1] It is ‘the most likely engine’[1] to propel the PPE module of the planned Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway to be launched in 2022. Four identical AEPS engines would consume most of the 50 kW generated by solar power.”

From: “Advanced Electric Propulsion System” Wikipedia
At: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Electric_Propulsion_System

The 2,600 Isp of the “Advanced Electric Propulsion System” should offer many useful Cislunar Space orbital options for crews on our upcoming Gateway Spaceship. Future high Isp electric propulsion systems will continue to enable many more new, cost effective, and high delta-v mission capable spacecraft.

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